Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Details for: Nyiragongo
One of Africa's most notable volcanoes, Nyiragongo is seen here from the south across Lake Kivu at Peyer Yard in Rwanda. Nyiragongo contained a lava lake in its deep summit crater that was active for half a century before draining suddenly in 1977. In contrast to the low profile of its neighboring shield volcano, Nyamuragira, 3470-m-high Nyiragongo displays the steep slopes of a stratovolcano. About 100 parasitic cones are located primarily along radial fissures east of the summit and along a NE-SW zone extending as far as Lake Kivu. Photo by B. Martinelli, 1994 (courtesy of Jack Lockwood, U.S. Geological Survey).
Volcano Number:223030
Volcano Name:Nyiragongo
Country:DR Congo
Volcano Type:Stratovolcano
Last Eruption:2019
Elevation:3470m
Tectonic Setting:Rift zone / Continental crust (> 25 km)
Pop. within 5km:2416
Pop. within 10km:31145
Pop. within 30km:1006436
Pop. within 100km:9087529
Latitude:-1.52
Longitude:29.25



Eruption Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Volcano Number Volcano Name Eruption Number Activity Type Explosivity Index Max Explosivity Index Modifier Activity Area Activity Unit Start Evidence Method Start Date End Date
223030 Nyiragongo 14086 Confirmed Eruption 1 Southern pit Historical Observations 1884
223030 Nyiragongo 14087 Confirmed Eruption Volcano Uncertain: probably Nyiragongo 1891
223030 Nyiragongo 14088 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1894
223030 Nyiragongo 14089 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1898
223030 Nyiragongo 14090 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1899
223030 Nyiragongo 14091 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1900
223030 Nyiragongo 14092 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1901
223030 Nyiragongo 14093 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1902
223030 Nyiragongo 14094 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1905
223030 Nyiragongo 14095 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1906
223030 Nyiragongo 14096 Uncertain Eruption Southern craters 1908/12/1
223030 Nyiragongo 14097 Confirmed Eruption 1 Southern pit Historical Observations 1911 1911
223030 Nyiragongo 14098 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1918
223030 Nyiragongo 14099 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1920 1921
223030 Nyiragongo 14100 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1927/3/16 1977/1/10
223030 Nyiragongo 14101 Confirmed Eruption 1 North, south, and west flanks Historical Observations 1977/1/10 1977/1/10
223030 Nyiragongo 14104 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1982/6/21 1982/10/17
223030 Nyiragongo 14105 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1994/6/23 1996/3/16
223030 Nyiragongo 14106 Confirmed Eruption 1 South flank (2800-1570 m), summit crater Historical Observations 2002/1/17 2002/2/3
223030 Nyiragongo 14107 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2002/5/17 2019/4/11
Emissions Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Emission ID SO2 Kilotons Start Date End Date
54 30 2002/01/17 2002/01/17


Data from the Earthchem Portal


Data from the SESAR Database


Data from the MaGa Database
Location: Nyiragongo (View Details at MaGa DB)
Description: Nyiragongo volcano (3469 m) is located on the western branch of the East African Rift System, approximately 18 km north of the city of Goma (pop. 600,000), in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Its summit crater is about 1.3 km in diameter and it currently hosts the world’s largest (about 200 m diameter) persistent lava lake, which is perched 1.5 km above the altitude of Goma.
Hazard Description: In 1977, the first historical effusive eruption occurred when N-S oriented fractures opened on both the northern and southern flanks of Nyiragongo at elevations between 2700 m and 2200 m. The lava lake, which had been 155 m below the crater rim before the eruption, drained completely, leaving an empty crater 1000 m deep. Lava flows, raced down the flanks of the volcano reaching speeds of up to 60 km h-1, inundating several villages and a significant amount of agricultural land. Between 74 and 400 people were killed.
Type: volcanic_plume
Region: North-Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Country: Democratic Republic of the Congo
Volcanic Complex: Nyiragongo
Gas Flux Data:
Measurement Name Detail Specie Flux Std. Dev. Unit of Measure
Nyiragongo_18052005 Detail CO2 11897.28 0 Mg/d
Nyiragongo_18052005 Detail SO2 3317.76 0 Mg/d
Nyiragongo_06012006 Detail CO2 6730.56 0 Mg/d
Nyiragongo_06012006 Detail SO2 1952.64 0 Mg/d