Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Details for: Merapi
Merapi stratovolcano in central Java is capped by an unvegetated, growing lava-dome complex. The modern edifice of Merapi, at the left in this view, is constructed to the SE of the arcuate scarp on the right formed by destruction of the older Batulawang volcano. Merapi is one of Indonesia's most active volcanoes. Periodic collapse of its growing lava dome has produced pyroclastic flows and lahars that have devastated populated areas below the volcano. Photo by Yustinus Sulistiyo, 1994 (Volcanological Survey of Indonesia).
Volcano Number:263250
Volcano Name:Merapi
Country:Indonesia
Volcano Type:Stratovolcano
Last Eruption:2019
Elevation:2910m
Tectonic Setting:Subduction zone / Continental crust (> 25 km)
Pop. within 5km:49205
Pop. within 10km:185849
Pop. within 30km:4348473
Pop. within 100km:24728414
Latitude:-7.54
Longitude:110.446



Eruption Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Volcano Number Volcano Name Eruption Number Activity Type Explosivity Index Max Explosivity Index Modifier Activity Area Activity Unit Start Evidence Method Start Date End Date
263250 Merapi 13421 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1810
263250 Merapi 13422 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1812 1822
263250 Merapi 15811 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1797
263250 Merapi 15812 Confirmed Eruption 1 ? Historical Observations 1807
263250 Merapi 15813 Confirmed Eruption Old Merapi Radiocarbon (corrected) -8780
263250 Merapi 15814 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) -7310
263250 Merapi 15815 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) -4690
263250 Merapi 15816 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) -2910
263250 Merapi 15817 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) -1890
263250 Merapi 15818 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) -1770
263250 Merapi 15819 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) -1410
263250 Merapi 15820 Confirmed Eruption 4 P Bakalan tephra Radiocarbon (uncorrected) -1180
263250 Merapi 15821 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) -1010
263250 Merapi 15822 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) -700
263250 Merapi 15823 Confirmed Eruption 3 Ngrangkah Tephra Radiocarbon (corrected) -340
263250 Merapi 15824 Confirmed Eruption 4 P Tegalsruni tephra Radiocarbon (corrected) 20
263250 Merapi 15825 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 120
263250 Merapi 15826 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 190
263250 Merapi 15827 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 280
263250 Merapi 15828 Confirmed Eruption 3 Plalangan Tephra Radiocarbon (corrected) 410
263250 Merapi 15829 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 480
263250 Merapi 15831 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 540
263250 Merapi 15832 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 630
263250 Merapi 15833 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 680
263250 Merapi 15834 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 870
263250 Merapi 15835 Confirmed Eruption 3 Selo Tephra Radiocarbon (corrected) 940
263250 Merapi 15837 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 1010
263250 Merapi 15838 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 1090
263250 Merapi 15840 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 1140
263250 Merapi 15841 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 1190
263250 Merapi 15842 Confirmed Eruption Deles Tephra Radiocarbon (corrected) 1230
263250 Merapi 15843 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 1300
263250 Merapi 15844 Confirmed Eruption Sambisari Ash Radiocarbon (corrected) 1380
263250 Merapi 15845 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 1440
263250 Merapi 15846 Uncertain Eruption 1854
263250 Merapi 15847 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1861
263250 Merapi 15848 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1862/5/26 1864
263250 Merapi 15849 Confirmed Eruption Sambisari Ash Radiocarbon (corrected) 1480
263250 Merapi 15850 Confirmed Eruption 3 ^ Historical Observations 1548
263250 Merapi 15851 Confirmed Eruption 3 ^ Historical Observations 1554
263250 Merapi 15852 Confirmed Eruption 3 ^ Historical Observations 1560
263250 Merapi 15853 Confirmed Eruption 3 ^ Historical Observations 1584
263250 Merapi 15854 Uncertain Eruption 1586
263250 Merapi 15855 Confirmed Eruption 3 ^ Historical Observations 1587
263250 Merapi 15856 Confirmed Eruption 3 ^ Historical Observations 1658
263250 Merapi 15857 Confirmed Eruption 3 ^ Historical Observations 1663/12/31
263250 Merapi 15858 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 1672/8/4
263250 Merapi 15859 Confirmed Eruption 3 ^ Historical Observations 1677
263250 Merapi 15860 Confirmed Eruption 3 ^ Historical Observations 1678/8/19
263250 Merapi 15861 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1745
263250 Merapi 15862 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1752
263250 Merapi 15863 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1755
263250 Merapi 15864 Confirmed Eruption 2 ? Historical Observations 1768/8/19
263250 Merapi 15865 Confirmed Eruption 1 ? Historical Observations 1786/7/17
263250 Merapi 15866 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1791
263250 Merapi 15867 Confirmed Eruption 3 ? Historical Observations 1822/12/27 1823/4/6
263250 Merapi 15868 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1828/12/18 1828/12/19
263250 Merapi 15869 Confirmed Eruption 2 ? Historical Observations 1832/12/25 1836
263250 Merapi 15870 Confirmed Eruption 2 ? Historical Observations 1837/8/10 1838
263250 Merapi 15871 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1840/1/4
263250 Merapi 15872 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1846/4/6
263250 Merapi 15873 Confirmed Eruption 3 Summit and upper SE flank (2600 m) Historical Observations 1846/9/2 1847
263250 Merapi 15874 Uncertain Eruption 1848/1/8
263250 Merapi 15875 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1849/4/26 1849/4/26
263250 Merapi 15876 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 1849/9/14 1849/9/24
263250 Merapi 15877 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1865/10/24 1871
263250 Merapi 15878 Confirmed Eruption 4 Historical Observations 1872/4/15 1872/4/21
263250 Merapi 15879 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1872/11/3 1873
263250 Merapi 15880 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1878 1879/6/20
263250 Merapi 15881 Confirmed Eruption 1 East dome Historical Observations 1883 1884
263250 Merapi 15882 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1885/2/24 1887
263250 Merapi 15883 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1888/8/18 1888/12/20
263250 Merapi 15884 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1889
263250 Merapi 15885 Confirmed Eruption 2 ? Historical Observations 1891/8/25 1892
263250 Merapi 15886 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1893
263250 Merapi 15887 Confirmed Eruption 2 ? Historical Observations 1894/1/27 1894/2/2
263250 Merapi 15888 Confirmed Eruption 1 ? Historical Observations 1894
263250 Merapi 15889 Confirmed Eruption 2 ? Historical Observations 1897
263250 Merapi 15890 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1902/2/3 1902/2/3
263250 Merapi 15891 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1902 1904/6/20
263250 Merapi 15892 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1905 1905/6/1
263250 Merapi 15893 Confirmed Eruption 2 Summit and upper east flank (2600 m) Historical Observations 1906/1/26 1907/2/17
263250 Merapi 15894 Confirmed Eruption 1 ? Historical Observations 1908
263250 Merapi 15895 Confirmed Eruption 1 West dome Historical Observations 1909/2/1 1913
263250 Merapi 15896 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1915/3/28 1915/5/15
263250 Merapi 15897 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1918
263250 Merapi 15898 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1920/7/25 1921
263250 Merapi 15899 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1922/2/18 1922/8/8
263250 Merapi 15900 Uncertain Eruption 1923 1923
263250 Merapi 15901 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1924/9/10 1924/9/12
263250 Merapi 15902 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 1930/11/25 1931
263250 Merapi 15903 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1932
263250 Merapi 15904 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1933/10/1 1935
263250 Merapi 15905 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1939/12/13 1940
263250 Merapi 15906 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1942/5/30 1945
263250 Merapi 15907 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1948/9/29 1948
263250 Merapi 15908 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1953/3/2 1958/12/16
263250 Merapi 15913 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 1961/4/11 1961/11/28
263250 Merapi 15914 Confirmed Eruption 2 Upper Batang breach (2600 m) Historical Observations 1967/1/12 1970/7/2
263250 Merapi 15915 Uncertain Eruption 1 ? 1971/1/16 1971/7/26
263250 Merapi 15916 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1972/10/6 1985/3/16
263250 Merapi 15917 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1986/10/10 1990/8/16
263250 Merapi 15922 Confirmed Eruption 2 NW of 1984 lava dome Historical Observations 1992/1/20 2002/10/19
263250 Merapi 15923 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2006/3/16 2007/8/9
263250 Merapi 15924 Uncertain Eruption 2008/5/19
263250 Merapi 15925 Confirmed Eruption 4 Historical Observations 2010/10/26 2012/7/15
263250 Merapi 20842 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2013/11/18 2013/11/18
263250 Merapi 20892 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 2014/3/9 2014/4/20
263250 Merapi 22264 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 2018/5/11 2019/7/11
Emissions Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Emission ID SO2 Kilotons Start Date End Date
117 10 2006/06/15 2006/06/15
118 300 2010/11/04 2010/11/04


Data from the Earthchem Portal


Data from the SESAR Database


Data from the MaGa Database
Location: Merapi (View Details at MaGa DB)
Description: Merapi volcano (Fig. 1a) is a 2,970 m a.s.l. basalt-andesite stratovolcano. It is currently the most active volcano in Indonesia with a quasi continuous extrusion rate of lava averaging 3,000 m3 day−1 over the last century. The summit area of Merapi can be described as a cone with a 600 m diameter base and 300 m height. The southern part consists of a degassing crater which also hosts a growing dome. The northern area displays no magmatic activity and little evidence of degassing except for two fumarole fields, and steam condensation along faults.
Hazard Description: not reported
Type: soil_diffuse_emission
Region: Central Java, Indonesia
Country: Indonesia
Volcanic Complex: Merapi
Gas Flux Data:
Measurement Name Detail Specie Flux Std. Dev. Unit of Measure
Merapi_01092002 Detail CO2 200 0 Mg/d