Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Details for: Tengger Caldera
Bromo volcano steams at the left in this view from the rim of Ngadisari caldera, the older of two Tengger calderas. The pyroclastic cones of Bromo and the conical, parasol-ribbed Batok in the lower center, are two of several post-caldera cones of Tengger caldera. The towering conical peak of Semeru, Java's highest volcano, appears in the background at the end of a long N-S trending volcanic massif. Photo courtesy of Volcanological Survey of Indonesia.
Volcano Number:263310
Volcano Name:Tengger Caldera
Country:Indonesia
Volcano Type:Stratovolcano(es)
Last Eruption:2019
Elevation:2329m
Tectonic Setting:Subduction zone / Continental crust (> 25 km)
Pop. within 5km:27826
Pop. within 10km:69451
Pop. within 30km:1420878
Pop. within 100km:22628278
Latitude:-7.942
Longitude:112.95



Eruption Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Volcano Number Volcano Name Eruption Number Activity Type Explosivity Index Max Explosivity Index Modifier Activity Area Activity Unit Start Evidence Method Start Date End Date
263310 Tengger Caldera 13448 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1865/12/1 1865/12/18
263310 Tengger Caldera 13449 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1866
263310 Tengger Caldera 13450 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1867/12/13 1868/1/12
263310 Tengger Caldera 13518 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1939/6/24 1939
263310 Tengger Caldera 13528 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1950/5/27 1950/8/16
263310 Tengger Caldera 13529 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1955/12/29 1955/12/30
263310 Tengger Caldera 15530 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1935
263310 Tengger Caldera 15620 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1940/4/25 1940/7/3
263310 Tengger Caldera 15621 Confirmed Eruption 3 Bromo Historical Observations 1948/2/15 1948/4/25
263310 Tengger Caldera 15839 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1956/6/16 1956/7/16
263310 Tengger Caldera 15988 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1865 1865
263310 Tengger Caldera 16008 Confirmed Eruption Sandsea caldera Radiocarbon (uncorrected) -5260
263310 Tengger Caldera 16009 Confirmed Eruption 4 P Sandsea caldera Radiocarbon (uncorrected) -830
263310 Tengger Caldera 16010 Confirmed Eruption 2 Widodaren Radiocarbon (uncorrected) 190
263310 Tengger Caldera 16011 Confirmed Eruption 3 ? Segorowedi Radiocarbon (uncorrected) 330
263310 Tengger Caldera 16012 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Radiocarbon (uncorrected) 1590
263310 Tengger Caldera 16014 Uncertain Eruption Bromo 1767
263310 Tengger Caldera 16015 Uncertain Eruption Bromo 1775
263310 Tengger Caldera 16016 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1804
263310 Tengger Caldera 16017 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1815/4/5 1815/4/17
263310 Tengger Caldera 16018 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1820
263310 Tengger Caldera 16019 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1822/12/28 1823/1/5
263310 Tengger Caldera 16020 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1825/11/5 1825/11/8
263310 Tengger Caldera 16021 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1829/11/5 1829/11/11
263310 Tengger Caldera 16022 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1830/3/3
263310 Tengger Caldera 16023 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1830/12/15 1830/12/16
263310 Tengger Caldera 16024 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1835
263310 Tengger Caldera 16025 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1842/1/24 1842
263310 Tengger Caldera 16026 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1843
263310 Tengger Caldera 16027 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1844/11/9
263310 Tengger Caldera 16028 Confirmed Eruption 2 Volcano Uncertain 1856/9/10
263310 Tengger Caldera 16029 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1857
263310 Tengger Caldera 16030 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1858/3/4
263310 Tengger Caldera 16031 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1858/10/18
263310 Tengger Caldera 16032 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1859/1/30 1859/3/4
263310 Tengger Caldera 16033 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1860/6/12 1860/6/14
263310 Tengger Caldera 16034 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1877/4/24
263310 Tengger Caldera 16035 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1885
263310 Tengger Caldera 16036 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1885/10/31 1886/1/10
263310 Tengger Caldera 16037 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1886/4/15 1886/4/26
263310 Tengger Caldera 16038 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1886/11/11 1887/1/25
263310 Tengger Caldera 16039 Uncertain Eruption 2 Bromo 1888/2/27
263310 Tengger Caldera 16040 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1890 1890
263310 Tengger Caldera 16041 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1893/1/13 1893/3/27
263310 Tengger Caldera 16042 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1896
263310 Tengger Caldera 16043 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1906/9/25 1907/5/18
263310 Tengger Caldera 16044 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1907/8/28
263310 Tengger Caldera 16045 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1907/12/14 1908/2/13
263310 Tengger Caldera 16046 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1909/1/12 1909/1/14
263310 Tengger Caldera 16047 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1910/1/18 1910/1/21
263310 Tengger Caldera 16048 Confirmed Eruption 3 Bromo Historical Observations 1915 1916
263310 Tengger Caldera 16049 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1921 1921/10/17
263310 Tengger Caldera 16050 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1922/2/5 1922/6/20
263310 Tengger Caldera 16051 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1928/3/15 1928
263310 Tengger Caldera 16052 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1928/12/16
263310 Tengger Caldera 16053 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1929/8/7 1929/9/8
263310 Tengger Caldera 16054 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1930/5/30 1930
263310 Tengger Caldera 16055 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1972/1/26 1972/3/16
263310 Tengger Caldera 16056 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 1980/6/5 1980/9/20
263310 Tengger Caldera 16057 Uncertain Eruption 1 Bromo 1983/4/15 1983/6/28
263310 Tengger Caldera 16058 Confirmed Eruption 1 Bromo Historical Observations 1983/12/21 1983/12/21
263310 Tengger Caldera 16059 Confirmed Eruption 1 Bromo Historical Observations 1984/5/12 1984/5/31
263310 Tengger Caldera 16060 Confirmed Eruption 1 Bromo Historical Observations 1995/3/3 1995/5/26
263310 Tengger Caldera 16061 Confirmed Eruption 1 Bromo Historical Observations 1995/9/9 1995/12/16
263310 Tengger Caldera 16062 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 2000/11/29 2001/1/15
263310 Tengger Caldera 16063 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 2004/6/8 2004/6/24
263310 Tengger Caldera 16064 Confirmed Eruption 3 ? Bromo Historical Observations 2010/11/26 2012/6/13
263310 Tengger Caldera 22103 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo cone Historical Observations 2015/11/12 2016/11/12
263310 Tengger Caldera 22306 Confirmed Eruption 2 Bromo Historical Observations 2019/2/18 2019/4/29
Emissions Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Emission ID SO2 Kilotons Start Date End Date
121 31 2004/06/09 2004/06/09
122 5 2010/11/29 2010/11/29
123 12 2010/12/20 2010/12/26
124 24 2011/01/28 2011/02/12


Data from the Earthchem Portal


Data from the SESAR Database


Data from the MaGa Database
Location: Bromo (View Details at MaGa DB)
Description: Bromo is the only active centre of a cluster of post-caldera cones constructed on the floor of the Sandsea caldera, the youngest (late Pleistocene to early Holocene) and smallest (9 × 10 km) collapse structure of the Tengger volcanic complex, in east Java.
Hazard Description: not reported
Type: volcanic_plume
Region: East Java, Indonesia
Country: Indonesia
Volcanic Complex: Bromo
Gas Concentration Data:
Measurement Name Detail Specie Concentration Unit of Measure
Bromo_20092014 Detail H2O/SO2 56
Bromo_20092014 Detail CO2/SO2 3.4
Bromo_20092014 Detail H2S/SO2 0.26
Bromo_21092014 Detail H2O/SO2 160
Bromo_21092014 Detail CO2/SO2 5.1
Bromo_21092014 Detail H2S/SO2 0.2
Gas Flux Data:
Measurement Name Detail Specie Flux Std. Dev. Unit of Measure
Bromo_20092014 Detail H2O 2628 773 Mg/d
Bromo_20092014 Detail CO2 393 69 Mg/d
Bromo_20092014 Detail SO2 168 35 Mg/d
Bromo_20092014 Detail H2S 25 9 Mg/d
Bromo_21092014 Detail H2O 7383 2540 Mg/d
Bromo_21092014 Detail CO2 574 203 Mg/d
Bromo_21092014 Detail SO2 164 70 Mg/d
Bromo_21092014 Detail H2S 17 6 Mg/d