Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Details for: San Cristobal
The San Cristóbal volcanic complex consists of five principal edifices. The youngest cone, the namesake San Cristóbal, seen here from the south, is the highest peak of the Marrabios Range. Several radial flank craters occur along a N-S line on the outer north flank of 1745-m-high San Cristóbal. Historical activity, consisting of small-to-moderate explosive eruptions, has been reported since the 16th century. The SW crater rim (left) rises 140 m above the NE rim because prevailing trade winds distribute tephra to the SW. Photo by Jaime Incer.
Volcano Number:344020
Volcano Name:San Cristobal
Country:Nicaragua
Volcano Type:Stratovolcano
Last Eruption:2018
Elevation:1745m
Tectonic Setting:Subduction zone / Continental crust (> 25 km)
Pop. within 5km:208
Pop. within 10km:7876
Pop. within 30km:351227
Pop. within 100km:2002579
Latitude:12.702
Longitude:-87.004



Eruption Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Volcano Number Volcano Name Eruption Number Activity Type Explosivity Index Max Explosivity Index Modifier Activity Area Activity Unit Start Evidence Method Start Date End Date
344020 San Cristobal 10875 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 1528
344020 San Cristobal 10876 Uncertain Eruption 1613
344020 San Cristobal 10877 Confirmed Eruption 2 ? Historical Observations 1680
344020 San Cristobal 10878 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1684
344020 San Cristobal 10879 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1685
344020 San Cristobal 10880 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1971/5/3 1971/7/5
344020 San Cristobal 10881 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1976/3/9 1976/3/16
344020 San Cristobal 10882 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1976/8/29 1976/8/29
344020 San Cristobal 10883 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1977/10/16 1977/10/16
344020 San Cristobal 10884 Uncertain Eruption 1985/9/2
344020 San Cristobal 10885 Uncertain Eruption 1987/11/16
344020 San Cristobal 10886 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 1997/5/19 1997/7/7
344020 San Cristobal 10887 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1999/5/1 2000/6/16
344020 San Cristobal 10888 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2001/5/11 2001/12/9
344020 San Cristobal 10889 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2002/5/29 2002/12/16
344020 San Cristobal 10890 Confirmed Eruption 1 ? Historical Observations 2003/6/17 2004/6/13
344020 San Cristobal 10891 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2004/12/3 2004/12/7
344020 San Cristobal 10892 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2005/11/13 2006/5/27
344020 San Cristobal 10893 Confirmed Eruption 1 ? Historical Observations 2007/11/8
344020 San Cristobal 10894 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2008/6/22 2008/8/5
344020 San Cristobal 10895 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2008/11/21 2008/11/21
344020 San Cristobal 10896 Confirmed Eruption 2 ? Historical Observations 2009/9/6 2009/12/26
344020 San Cristobal 10897 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2010/6/9 2011/1/13
344020 San Cristobal 10898 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2011/8/21 2011/10/23
344020 San Cristobal 20815 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2012/9/8 2012/9/15
344020 San Cristobal 20816 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2012/12/26 2012/12/28
344020 San Cristobal 20817 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2013/6/7 2013/6/7
344020 San Cristobal 20941 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2014/2/4 2014/4/11
344020 San Cristobal 22130 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2016/4/22 2016/4/22
344020 San Cristobal 22252 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 2017/8/18 2017/11/11
344020 San Cristobal 22266 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2018/4/22 2018/4/22
344020 San Cristobal 22267 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2014/7/20 2014/10/1
344020 San Cristobal 22268 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2015/3/5 2015/6/12
344020 San Cristobal 22269 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2017/2/18 2017/4/19
Emissions Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Emission ID SO2 Kilotons Start Date End Date
290 5 2012/09/08 2012/09/08
291 1 2012/12/26 2012/12/26


Data from the Earthchem Portal


Data from the SESAR Database


Data from the MaGa Database
Location: San Cristobal (View Details at MaGa DB)
Description: Volcán San Cristóbal is the highest volcano in Nicaragua at 1,745 m. Located near to the northwest corner of the country, it forms a majestic backdrop to the city of Chichigalpa, Chinandega. It is also among the most active volcanos in Nicaragua, erupting frequently. San Cristóbal remains quite active, continuously expelling copious amounts of gas and smoke. As recent as September 2009, it was reported that ash was falling in nearby towns.In September 2012 it erupted again, spewing ash up to four kilometres (2.5 miles) into the atmosphere, resulting in the evacuation of around 3000 people in the surrounding area. A further eruption took place, starting on the 25th of December 2012 and continuing into 2013, causing the evacuation of hundreds of locals.
Hazard Description: not reported
Type: volcanic_plume
Region: Chinandega, Nicaragua
Country: Nicaragua
Volcanic Complex: San Cristobal
Gas Concentration Data:
Measurement Name Detail Specie Concentration Unit of Measure
SanCristóbal_11042013 Detail H2O/CO2 22
SanCristóbal_11042013 Detail CO2/SO2 4.2
Gas Flux Data:
Measurement Name Detail Specie Flux Std. Dev. Unit of Measure
San Cristobal_15042013 Detail CO2 753 0 Mg/d
SanCristóbal_11042013 Detail CO2 523 263 Mg/d
SanCristóbal_11042013 Detail SO2 181 35 Mg/d