Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Details for: Turrialba
The summit crater complex of Turrialba volcano is seen here from the north, with the Central Valley of Costa Rica in the background. Three well-defined craters can be seen at the upper SW end of a broad 800 x 2200 m wide summit depression that is breached to the NE. Turrialba has been quiescent since a series of explosive eruptions during the 19th century that were sometimes accompanied by pyroclastic flows. Hydrothermally altered ground can be seen at the central and SW summit craters (right), where fumarolic activity continues. Photo by Federico Chavarria Kopper, 1999.
Volcano Number:345070
Volcano Name:Turrialba
Country:Costa Rica
Volcano Type:Stratovolcano
Last Eruption:2019
Elevation:3340m
Tectonic Setting:Subduction zone / Continental crust (> 25 km)
Pop. within 5km:1891
Pop. within 10km:6867
Pop. within 30km:672428
Pop. within 100km:3390544
Latitude:10.025
Longitude:-83.767



Eruption Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Volcano Number Volcano Name Eruption Number Activity Type Explosivity Index Max Explosivity Index Modifier Activity Area Activity Unit Start Evidence Method Start Date End Date
345070 Turrialba 11233 Confirmed Eruption NE summit crater Radiocarbon (corrected) -7260
345070 Turrialba 11234 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) -1420
345070 Turrialba 11235 Confirmed Eruption Tephrochronology -1120
345070 Turrialba 11236 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) -830
345070 Turrialba 11237 Confirmed Eruption 4 Central summit crater Radiocarbon (corrected) 40
345070 Turrialba 11238 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (corrected) 640
345070 Turrialba 11239 Confirmed Eruption Radiocarbon (uncorrected) 1350
345070 Turrialba 11240 Uncertain Eruption 1 1723
345070 Turrialba 11241 Uncertain Eruption 1847
345070 Turrialba 11242 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1853
345070 Turrialba 11243 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1855
345070 Turrialba 11244 Uncertain Eruption 1861
345070 Turrialba 11245 Confirmed Eruption 2 Central and SW summit craters Historical Observations 1864/8/17 1865
345070 Turrialba 11246 Confirmed Eruption 3 Central and SW summit craters Historical Observations 1866 1866/5/8
345070 Turrialba 11247 Confirmed Eruption 2 SW crater Historical Observations 2010/1/5 2010/3/7
345070 Turrialba 11248 Uncertain Eruption 2 2010/7/24 2010/8/15
345070 Turrialba 20829 Confirmed Eruption 1 Historical Observations 2011/1/14 2011/1/14
345070 Turrialba 20830 Confirmed Eruption 2 West Crater (SE flank) Historical Observations 2012/1/12 2012/1/18
345070 Turrialba 20831 Confirmed Eruption 2 West Crater Historical Observations 2013/5/21 2013/6/4
345070 Turrialba 20974 Confirmed Eruption 2 Central Crater Historical Observations 2014/10/29 2014/12/8
345070 Turrialba 20998 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 2015/3/8 2019/7/11
Emissions Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Emission ID SO2 Kilotons Start Date End Date
295 3 2014/10/30 2014/10/30


Data from the Earthchem Portal


Data from the SESAR Database


Data from the MaGa Database
Location: Turrialba (View Details at MaGa DB)
Description: Turrialba lies on the Central America Volcanic Front. It is a stratovolcano that has seen increased fumarolic activity over 2002, with new fumarolic vents and fractures opening in and outside of the West Crater area in January 2010 and 2012, respectively. From 2007 on, after the hydrothermal stage which characterized the fumarolic discharge since at least the 1980s until fall 2001 (e.g. Cheminée et al., 1983; Vaselli et al., 2010), both composition and high temperature (up to 800 °C) of the fumaroles indicate that the gases are directly supplied from the magma chamber with only limited interaction with the hydrothermal system.
Hazard Description: not reported
Type: volcanic_plume
Region: Cartago, Costa Rica
Country: Costa Rica
Volcanic Complex: Turrialba
Gas Concentration Data:
Measurement Name Detail Specie Concentration Unit of Measure
Turrialba_12032013 Detail H2O/CO2 20.4
Turrialba_12032013 Detail CO2/SO2 2.2
Turrialba_02042013 Detail H2O/CO2 32
Turrialba_02042013 Detail CO2/SO2 2
Gas Flux Data:
Measurement Name Detail Specie Flux Std. Dev. Unit of Measure
Turrialba_19032013 Detail CO2 1350 0 Mg/d
Turrialba_12032013 Detail CO2 1000 0 Mg/d
Turrialba_12032013 Detail CO2 1270 700 Mg/d
Turrialba_12032013 Detail SO2 840 120 Mg/d
Turrialba_02042013 Detail CO2 918 560 Mg/d
Turrialba_02042013 Detail SO2 668 308 Mg/d