Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Details for: Hekla
Snow-covered Hekla, one of Iceland's most prominent and active volcanoes, is seen here in an aerial view from the east. Toppgigur crater occupies the summit and Axlargigur crater forms a knob along the summit ridge to the left. Repeated eruptions along an ENE-WSW-trending rift are responsible for Hekla's elongated profile. The 5.5-km-long Heklugja fissure cuts across the volcano and is often active along its full length during major eruptions. Lava flows from Hekla's historical eruptions, which date back to 1104 CE, cover much of the volcano's flanks. Photo by Oddur Sigurdsson, 1977 (Icelandic National Energy Authority).
Volcano Number:372070
Volcano Name:Hekla
Country:Iceland
Volcano Type:Stratovolcano
Last Eruption:2000
Elevation:1490m
Tectonic Setting:Rift zone / Oceanic crust (< 15 km)
Pop. within 5km:0
Pop. within 10km:0
Pop. within 30km:298
Pop. within 100km:22845
Latitude:63.983
Longitude:-19.666



Eruption Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Volcano Number Volcano Name Eruption Number Activity Type Explosivity Index Max Explosivity Index Modifier Activity Area Activity Unit Start Evidence Method Start Date End Date
372070 Hekla 12690 Confirmed Eruption Svinholdahraun Tephrochronology -5850
372070 Hekla 12691 Confirmed Eruption 5 H5 tephra Radiocarbon (corrected) -5150
372070 Hekla 12692 Confirmed Eruption Reydarvatnshraun lava flow, Vatnafjöll Tephrochronology -5050
372070 Hekla 12693 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll (Raudölduhraun) Tephrochronology -4950
372070 Hekla 12694 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll (west of Laufafell) Tephrochronology -4750
372070 Hekla 12695 Confirmed Eruption 4 + Heka DH tephra Tephrochronology -4700
372070 Hekla 12696 Confirmed Eruption Gunnarsholtshraun Tephrochronology -4650
372070 Hekla 12697 Confirmed Eruption Krokahraun, Vatnafjöll Tephrochronology -4550
372070 Hekla 12698 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll (Lambadalshraun) Tephrochronology -4350
372070 Hekla 12699 Confirmed Eruption Knafaholdahraun Tephrochronology -4250
372070 Hekla 12700 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll (Grasleysisfjallahraun) Tephrochronology -4150
372070 Hekla 12701 Confirmed Eruption 5 ? Hekla Ö tephra Radiocarbon (corrected) -4110
372070 Hekla 12702 Confirmed Eruption Baejarhraun Tephrochronology -4050
372070 Hekla 12703 Confirmed Eruption Axarhraun, Vatnafjöll Tephrochronology -3950
372070 Hekla 12704 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll Tephrochronology -3750
372070 Hekla 12705 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll Tephrochronology -3450
372070 Hekla 12706 Confirmed Eruption Raudkollar, Vatnafjöll (Grafellshraun) Tephrochronology -3350
372070 Hekla 12707 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll (Tröllaskógahraun) Tephrochronology -2950
372070 Hekla 12708 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll Tephrochronology -2750
372070 Hekla 12709 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll (Reynnisfellshraun) Tephrochronology -2450
372070 Hekla 12710 Confirmed Eruption 5 H4 tephra Radiocarbon (corrected) -2310
372070 Hekla 12711 Confirmed Eruption NE flank (Krokagilsoduhraun), Vatnafjöll Tephrochronology -1850
372070 Hekla 12712 Confirmed Eruption Tephrochronology -1750
372070 Hekla 12713 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll Tephrochronology -1650
372070 Hekla 12714 Confirmed Eruption 4 Seslund pumice Tephrochronology -1550
372070 Hekla 12715 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll Tephrochronology -1350
372070 Hekla 12716 Confirmed Eruption NE flank, Vatnafjöll Tephrochronology -1250
372070 Hekla 12717 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll (Hraunhalsshraun) Tephrochronology -1150
372070 Hekla 12718 Confirmed Eruption 5 + H3 tephra Radiocarbon (corrected) -1100
372070 Hekla 12719 Confirmed Eruption NE flank (Raudkembingahraun), Vatnafjöll Tephrochronology -850
372070 Hekla 12720 Confirmed Eruption NE flank, Vatnafjöll (Langviuhraun) Tephrochronology -750
372070 Hekla 12721 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll (Svalaskardshraun) Tephrochronology -650
372070 Hekla 12722 Confirmed Eruption NE flank, Vatnafjöll (Langviuhraun) Tephrochronology -250
372070 Hekla 12723 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll (Kringluhraun) Tephrochronology -150
372070 Hekla 12724 Confirmed Eruption NE flank (Hestolduhraun), Vatnafjöll Tephrochronology 250
372070 Hekla 12725 Confirmed Eruption Vatnafjöll (Eskihlidarhraun) Tephrochronology 350
372070 Hekla 12726 Confirmed Eruption Tephrochronology 550
372070 Hekla 12727 Confirmed Eruption NE flank (Helliskvislarhraun) Tephrochronology 650
372070 Hekla 12728 Confirmed Eruption Taglgigahraun, Solvahraun, Stakahraun Tephrochronology 750
372070 Hekla 12729 Confirmed Eruption Heklutaglahraun Tephrochronology 800
372070 Hekla 12730 Confirmed Eruption Austurhraun Tephrochronology 1050
372070 Hekla 12731 Confirmed Eruption 5 H1 tephra Historical Observations 1104/10/15
372070 Hekla 12732 Confirmed Eruption 4 Historical Observations 1158/1/19
372070 Hekla 12733 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 1206/12/4
372070 Hekla 12734 Confirmed Eruption 2 Historical Observations 1222
372070 Hekla 12735 Confirmed Eruption 4 Historical Observations 1300/7/11 1301
372070 Hekla 12736 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 1341/5/19
372070 Hekla 12737 Confirmed Eruption 3 Summit ridge, west flank (Raudoldur) Historical Observations 1389/12/1 1390
372070 Hekla 12738 Confirmed Eruption SE of Hekla Tephrochronology 1440
372070 Hekla 12739 Confirmed Eruption 4 Historical Observations 1510/7/25
372070 Hekla 12740 Confirmed Eruption 2 ? SW of Hekla (Raudubjallar) Historical Observations 1554 1554
372070 Hekla 12741 Confirmed Eruption 4 Historical Observations 1597/1/3 1597
372070 Hekla 12742 Confirmed Eruption 3 Historical Observations 1636/5/8 1637
372070 Hekla 12743 Confirmed Eruption 4 Historical Observations 1693/2/13 1693/9/14
372070 Hekla 12744 Confirmed Eruption 1 ? SW, south and east of Hekla Historical Observations 1725/4/2
372070 Hekla 12745 Confirmed Eruption 4 Bjallagigar Historical Observations 1766/4/5 1768
372070 Hekla 12746 Confirmed Eruption 4 Summit, SW and NE flanks Historical Observations 1845/9/2 1846/4/5
372070 Hekla 12747 Confirmed Eruption 2 East of Hekla (Krakagigar) Historical Observations 1878/2/27 1878
372070 Hekla 12748 Confirmed Eruption 2 E & NE of Hekla (Mundafit, Lambafit) Historical Observations 1913/4/25 1913/5/18
372070 Hekla 12749 Confirmed Eruption 4 Hraungigur, Axlargigur, Toppgigur Historical Observations 1947/3/29 1948/4/21
372070 Hekla 12750 Confirmed Eruption 3 Sudurgigar, Hlidargigar, Oldugigar Historical Observations 1970/5/5 1970/7/5
372070 Hekla 12751 Confirmed Eruption 3 Summit, SW and NE flanks Historical Observations 1980/8/17 1980/8/20
372070 Hekla 12752 Confirmed Eruption 2 Summit and north flank (900 and 740 m) Historical Observations 1981/4/9 1981/4/16
372070 Hekla 12753 Confirmed Eruption 3 Summit, SW, SE & NE flank fissures Historical Observations 1991/1/17 1991/3/11
372070 Hekla 12754 Confirmed Eruption 3 SW flank Historical Observations 2000/2/26 2000/3/8
Emissions Data from the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution
Emission ID SO2 Kilotons Start Date End Date
351 460 1980/08/18 1980/08/18
352 10 1981/04/09 1981/04/09
353 230 1991/01/20 1991/01/20
354 183 2000/02/26 2000/02/26


Data from the Earthchem Portal


Data from the SESAR Database
Sorry. No data exist for this volcano in the SESAR database.


Data from the MaGa Database
Location: Hekla (View Details at MaGa DB)
Description: Hekla is one of the most active volcanoes in Europe. Its historical volcanic activity, petrology and geochemistry of volcanic rocks have been the subject of several studies. In recent decades, Hekla has erupted frequently, at an average rate of one eruption per decade, and most recently in 2000. Recently a weakly degassing, warm ground on the summit crater of has been identified.
Hazard Description: not reporetd
Type: fumarole
Region: Southern Region, Iceland
Country: Iceland
Volcanic Complex: Hekla
Gas Flux Data:
Measurement Name Detail Specie Flux Std. Dev. Unit of Measure
Hekla_02072013 Detail CO2 15 17 Mg/d